A brief history of the development of GIS

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GIS is not a modern science but has appeared since 1854 by the scientist John Snow in london’s Broad Street area. In the 1850s, cholera was understood and widespread outbreaks were common in major industrial cities.

Dr.John Snow came up with the hypothesis that cholera was transmitted by drinking contaminated water, not through air as scientists and doctors had thought, and noted that the outbreak seemed to be based on a public drinking water pump at Broad Street.

The system began to be used in the mid-1960s, and Canada was great in this area, where it was first used to analyse studies to determine the viability of agricultural land, the naturality of human and natural ties and their mutual impact.

At the end of the 1970s, a government and university institution began developing geographic information systems after the computer industry developed, with the Canadian Environmental Systems Research Institute established in 1960.

(ESRI: Environmental System Research Institute)

Thus, in the 1980s, we witnessed the emergence of advanced GIS systems for Arc/Info and others, and the 1990s saw software improvements, moved from DOS to WINDOWS, used multimedia such as audio, image, movement, embodiment and the possibility of a single program to do work that in the past required more than one program and increased the speed of information transmission, access to thesystem and then results, making GIS a direct interactive system that contributes to the daily decision-making of sectors different from society.

A lot of software has been produced for the system and its various accessories that serve most of the life disciplines of the community:

ArcGIS Desktop

An integrated geographic information system, consisting of three parts through which any GIS task can be applied:

ArcMap: The ESRI ArcGIS Group’s central program for geospatial processing software, which is primarily used to display, edit, create and analyze geospatial data, allows the user to explore data within a data set, encode features accordingly, and create maps, through two distinct sections of the program, the content table and the data frame.

Arc catalog:  It is a programme that helps organize and manage GIS data and records and displays documentary information on GIS files.

ArcCatalog’s interface consists of a catalog tree on the left and the preview part on the right.

You can use the catalog tree to navigate and browse the data.

ArcCatalog and ArcMap work together, you can search for and preview data in ArcCatalog and then drag and fry data.

ArcCatalog and ArcMap work together, you can search for and preview data in ArcCatalog and then drag and fry data.

Arc Toolbox: It is a simple program that contains a set of GIS tools and converts between the different consistency of GIS files, and it is not a separate program as Arc Toolbox started from within ArcMap, any information you run using the toolbox will be automatically updated in the map.

There are two versions of this program:

First, it supports the conversion of 150 formats of these files and this program comes with arc info.

The other program: 30 types of these files are done and comes with a program. (Arc View).

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