GIS features, its most important data sources and associated science


    Geographic information system GIS:

A computer-based system that collects, maintains, stores, outputs

, and distributes spatial and descriptive data and information for specific objectives
It helps in planning and making decisions regarding.

  In agriculture, urban planning and housing expansion, in addition to reading the infrastructure of any city by creating so-called lay layers.

This system enables us to enter geographical information (maps, aerial photographs, satellite visuals)

and descriptive information (names, tables) to process, store, retrieve, query, analyze spatial and statistical analysis, and display it on a computer screen or on paper in the form of maps, reports, and graphs or through the website.   :The term GIS consists of three main components

The spatial component of these systems is the land and the real world from which this information is derived.

It is the product obtained after the process of managing, organizing and extrapolating geographical data.

Computer technology and associated software.

GIS is not a modern science but has appeared since 1854 by the scientist John Snow in london’s Broad Street area. In the 1850s, cholera was understood and widespread outbreaks were common in major industrial cities.

Dr.John Snow came up with the hypothesis that cholera was transmitted by drinking contaminated water, not through air as scientists and doctors had thought, and noted that the outbreak seemed to be based on a public drinking water pump at Broad Street.

The system began to be used in the mid-1960s, and Canada was great in this area, where it was first used to analyse studies to determine the viability of agricultural land, the naturality of human and natural ties and their mutual impact.

At the end of the 1970s, a government and university institution began developing geographic information systems after the computer industry developed, with the Canadian Environmental Systems Research Institute established in 1960.

(ESRI: Environmental System Research Institute)

Thus, in the 1980s, we witnessed the emergence of advanced GIS systems for Arc/Info and others, and the 1990s saw software improvements, moved from DOS to WINDOWS, used multimedia such as audio, image, movement, embodiment and the possibility of a single program to do work that in the past required more than one program and increased the speed of information transmission, access to thesystem and then results, making GIS a direct interactive system that contributes to the daily decision-making of sectors different from society.


GIS has several features related to the uses of this system and the information entered and exited in it, including some features:

  1. Help plan new and expansion projects
  2. Helps speed up access to a large amount of information with high efficiency.
  3. Help make the best decision as quickly as possible.
  4. Helps spread information to a larger base than beneficiaries.
  5. Integrating spatial and metadata into a single database.
  6. Documenting and confirming data and information with standard specifications.
  7. Coordination between information and relevant entities before making a decision.
  8.  High spatial analytical capacity.
  9. The ability to answer queries and queries about the place or descriptive information. 
  10. The ability to visually represent spatial information.
  11.  Representation or simulation of new proposals, planning projects and study of results prior to actual application on the ground.

        Top GIS data sources:

  • Maps. Aerial images.Satellite images.Scheduling and statistical data.

          Science related to GIS:

  • Digital Maps.
  • Databases.
  • Ground area.
  • Remote sensing.
  • Aerial images  .
  • Computer-aided design systems.
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